Science

Science

The hi-tech future source material is called Graphene

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This is the most powerful, thinner and more durable material ever created by man. Graphene is a mutant form of carbon which is the best conductor of electricity and heat on the planet. Get ready to hear more and more often the material isolated from raw graphite in 2004 at the Manchester University and in Russian universities and finding more and more applications in electronics, as many call it miraculous material.

Graphene
Graphene

Graphene has the potential to change the history of technology, ushering in flexible devices, quantum mechanical computers, electronics and wearable devices, but also through the harmless interaction with cells of the human body. Scientists at the University of Manchester who dealt extensively with the research of graphene and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010 explains that graphene transfer three properties simultaneously. It is transparent, conductive and flexible together, which makes it instantly unique among known materials. And, indeed, what other material could be seen 200 times stronger than steel, while an amount of 28.3 grams could cover an area equal to 28 football fields?

Graphene
Graphene

Physicists and researchers report that will soon be able to create thinner, faster and cheaper electronic devices compared with those based on silicon, which will be considered cleaner and waterproof batteries will have multiples duration of existing and will charge in no time. The above findings reinforce the Union’s research American Chemical stating that research on the material can lead to gadgets with touch screens that will have as thick as a sheet of paper and can be folded. As expected, companies like Samsung, as IBM, NOKIA and SanDisc, already ongoing investigations to such an extent as to be able to replace the use of silicon components like the sensors, monitors, etc. with Graphene produced in cheap laboratories.

Graphene
Graphene

If, however, the regime of silicon delays the spread of graphene in the electronics industry, already other areas, such as intelligent clothing that feel the environment or the automakers searching for resistant materials or even condoms graphene, the development whose foundation funded the Bill and Melinda Gates, is ready to adopt it as an ideal raw material! Graphene. Restrain the name. You’ll hear more and more often in the future when we will enjoy the new, generation electronic and non smart goods beside us, on us or even inside our bodies.

Graphene
Graphene

By Nicole P.

The Big Bang theory

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One of the most important theories of modern cosmology is that the universe began with the Big Bang. This course is not just an idea but a scientific theory supported by much evidence. For starters we have the theory of the cosmic microwave background, the continued expansion of space and that the abundance of primordial elements. Yet scientists are still wondering what is what initially caused the Big Bang. For many years cosmologists believe that the universe was created spontaneously, that the Big Bang was the result of quantum fluctuations and how the universe came into being from nothing. This is perfectly reasonable, given what we know about quantum mechanics, states an article in Physics arXiv Blog.

Big Bang
Big Bang
Big Bang
Big Bang

But physicists need something more. A mathematical proof that gives flesh and bones on the idea. Their wish came true through their performance thanks to the work of Dongshan He and his colleagues at the Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics in China. This research team found the first rigorous proof that the Big Bang could indeed have occurred spontaneously due to quantum fluctuations. This new proof is based on a specific set of solutions, a mathematical entity known as Equation Wheeler-DeWitt. In the first half of the 20th century cosmologists have struggled to reconcile the two pillars of modern physics quantum mechanics and general relativity in a way that will be described in a reasonable way the universe.

Big Bang
Big Bang
Big Bang
Big Bang

A breakthrough came in the 1960s, when physicists John Wheeler and Bryce DeWitt combined these two incompatible ideas in a mathematical framework, known today as the equation Wheeler-DeWitt. The Dongshan and colleagues exploration some new solutions of this equation. At the heart of their thinking is the uncertainty principle of Heisenberg. This allows the possibility of a small gap, due to fluctuations that physicists call metastable false vacuum. When this happens, there are two possibilities. If the bubble of space does not expand quickly disappears almost immediately. But if extended enough, then created a universe irreversibly. The question arises, however, is this: to allow this equation Wheeler-DeWitt.

Big Bang
Big Bang

We are proving that once created a small bubble metastable vacuum has the opportunity to expand exponentially, said the researchers. The approach of Dongshan and his colleagues, speaks of a spherical bubble which is described entirely by the radius. Then calculate the equation that describes the rate at which they can extend this range and then consider three scenarios for the geometry of the bubble: closed, open or flat. For each of these cases find a solution, whereby the balloon can be expanded exponentially and consequently reached such a size that can be created a universe a Big Bang.

By Nicole P.

Say hello to 2012 VP113, the newest dwarf planet discovered

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The data that we currently have about our solar system have changed after a breakthrough astronomers made and shows a new celestial object in the so-called “inner Oort cloud”.

It is an icy dwarf planet with the provisional name «2012 VP113», which has a diameter of about 450 km. Scientists believe that there is a great chance of finding  to find other surprises in the same remote area, even a gigantic ‘ Planet X ‘. A planet which is perhaps ten times the size of the Earth, that is unseen until today as it’s wandering too far from the Sun, but exerts gravitational effects on smaller bodies in the same area as the 2012 VP113. This unknown microscopic planet probably consists mainly of ice (due to the large distance from the sun), has a highly elliptical orbit that brings it at a distance of  80 astronomical units of the Sun on its the nearest point (about 12 billion kilometers) to 452 astronomical units (67 billion miles) in the most remote one (one astronomical unit equals the distance between the  Earth and the Sun and it is about 149 million km).

A new dwarf planet
A new dwarf planet

Specifically, the «2012 VP113 needs several thousand earth years to make a complete orbit around the Sun. To date, only one more object was discovered in 2003 beyond the orbit of Pluto, Sedna, with a diameter of about 1000 km. The «2012 VP113» is even farther away, which makes  it now the most distant known celestial object in our solar system.

Solar system
Solar system

Indeed, astronomers believe that Sedna and “2012 VP113” are simply the “tip of the iceberg “, as a large number of objects still remain to be discovered, of which about 1,000 are at least the same as Sedna. In fact, many of them are sufficiently larger than Pluto, Mars and possibly Earth. They are too distant though and it is therefore difficult to identify them. The ” Planet X ” (if there is any) may be located at a distance of 250 astronomical units from the Sun. The discovery, led by Scott Sheppard of the Carnegie Institute, was made ​​by two telescopes in Chile and the relevant scientific publication was in the «Nature» magazine, according to the BBC, the Reuters agency and the «New Scientist».

There it is!
There it is!

The region of space after the last major planet in the solar system, Neptune, is called “Kuiper belt” (its most famous celestial object is Pluto). Even further, there is the much larger and icy region ” Oort Cloud”, which probably – except from a plethora of comets – hosts many yet unknown celestial objects. Once, Pluto was considered the most distant planetary object, then Sedna won the title and now we have «2012 VP113», for which the International Astronomical Union is working on giving it a better name.

By +Nikos Kontorigas

Human facial recreation from DNA

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Although the technique is still at an early stage, making portraits without much precision, could in the future, when it is further improved to provide significant assistance to the police and other services. The method is based on identifying genes affecting the formation of facial features in humans. The researchers, led by Professor Mark Shriver, University of Pennsylvania, made ​​the date of publication in the journal genetic PLoS Genetics, according to the Nature and the New Scientist, failed to correlate specific markers of DNA with specific characteristics facial. So with the help of sophisticated statistical techniques, began to create a database that goes back computer software and depending on the content of the genetic analysis it plans only the potential of a wanted person. The database and the algorithms of the program will be enriched, so the new technology creates three dimensional portraits with greater accuracy than those created by artists of police based on memories of eyewitnesses.

Recreating person from DNA
Recreating person from DNA
Recreating person from DNA
Recreating person from DNA

As Shriver said, currently Authorities use DNA to identify a suspect, as long as you have but advance their files sample of genetic material, to be compared with that found at the crime scene. Today we can go from DNA to a person or vice versa, by a person to DNA, but this is something that could be done, said American researcher. If anything, he added, the new technique could provide even broadly the face of a suspect, so that it narrows considerably the circle of searches by police. In addition, according to the researchers method could be used to make provision with respect to the facial features of the descendants of ancestors, even the extinct human species. As others point out, however, more skeptical scientists, the reconstruction of the human person is much more difficult than it appears at first sight, because there are individual genes to determine, for example if someone’s nose is big or small. In complex of the genetic factors is to add even more complicated influence of the environment, such as different climate, which also affects the shape of the face.

Recreating person from DNA
Recreating person from DNA
Recreating person from DNA
Recreating person from DNA

As stated by Manfred Kaiser from the Medical Center, Netherlands Erasmus University Rotterdam, the new three dimensional modeling technique based on the genetic material can be very useful in future. However, at present, has little to offer in practice, as it has proven difficult to predict, based on analysis of DNA, even a simple feature such as body height. So far, the genetic analysis can predict with some reliability on the color of eyes, hair and skin color. However, already, Mark Shriver collaborates with the police of Pennsylvania to test the technique in locating a serial rapist. As estimates, in five to ten years we will be able to accurately predict a person using the computer.

By Nicole P.

Obesity brings low grades in school

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Obesity in girls is associated with lower academic performance throughout the course of adolescence, compared with peers who have normal weight, according to a new British scientific research. This is the largest study done to date on the relationship between obesity and performance of adolescents at school. Researchers from the Universities Strathklaint, Dundee and Bristol, led by Professor John Riley, who made the date of publication in the International Journal of Obesity issues International Journal of Obesity, analyzed the data on nearly 6,000 children, correlating their grades in school their weight at ages 11, 13 and 16 years. Of all children, 72% were weighted normal for their age, 13% were overweight and 15% obese.

Obesity
Obesity

The analysis showed that obese girls as a group systematically from 11 to 16 years had the worst academic performance in relation to their classmates with normal weight. The relationship between obesity and school performance was not equally clear in boys with extra weight. The worst performance of obese girls were all core subjects and on average, representing a level score of D compared to C. One of the researchers, Professor of psychology Josie Booth stressed that there is a clear trend showing that obese girls, during the whole of their teens, are doing worse in school than their peers with healthy weight.

Obesity and school grades
Obesity and school grades

Riley said that further research is needed to determine why obesity is negatively correlated with school performance especially of girls, but noted that students, parents and teachers should be aware of the problem. Note that the survey found only a correlation between obesity, grades and not by a cause, effect and that this relationship is not necessarily true for all obese girls. Finally, it specifies that the body mass index is considered normal below 25, while showing an overweight man between 25-30 and obese above 30.

By Nicole P.

NASA has discovered 715 new planets

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Almost with one look NASA discovered not one, nor two but 715 new planets! This is the largest mass discovery of new planets ever with one look. To understand the magnitude of the discovery, up before this discovery we knew just 1,000 planets. The 715 new planets revolve around 305 different stars and detected by the Kepler space telescope. Four of these planets are so called habitable zone that could potentially host life. NASA astronomers said the Kepler is the player that he will change the data in the discovery of the Universe.

New Planets discovered
New Planets discovered
New Planets discovered
New Planets discovered
New Planets discovered
New Planets discovered

The technique uses are called confirmation of multiplicity and based on the logic of probability: the inquiries directed blindly but to identify stars that based studies are more likely to have more than one planet-satellites. 95% of the planets discovered are smaller than the planet Neptune. One of them is exactly twice the size of Earth and orbits a star with half the size of the Sun. This planet is in the habitable zone.

By Nicole P.

A new state of matter was found in the eyes of chicken

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A new state of matter that can manifest simultaneously as glass and liquid has been found in the most unexpected place: in the eyes of a chicken. The unusual arrangement of photoreceptors in the eyes of chickens, discovered by physicists from the universities of Princeton and Washington in St. Louis, USA, is the first demonstration of a possible new state of matter called a disorderly hyperuniform biological organism.

According to a study published in the journal “Physical Review E“, the discovery was made when researchers studied the cones or sensitive cells in the retina to light that allow the perception of colors. Chickens and other birds are most active during the day and there are four different types of cones, purple, blue, green and red – colored as well as a fifth type needed to detect light levels.

Chicken
Chicken

In many animal species the cones are arranged in a structured order, but their distribution in the eyes of a chicken at first glance seemed chaotic. This is because, as suggested by the American physicists, the thing around each cone is a buffer zone which may be other receptors of the same type, so that each type of cone has its own uniform pattern. This phenomenon is called disorderly hyperuniformity and so far only been observed in non-organic systems, such as liquid helium or plasma.

We have found that physical systems have exotic properties and new features. As we learn more about these systems we understand that, in fact, they should be considered as a new state of matter, says Salvatore Torquato, one of the research people. According to scientists, this feature could help design advanced optical materials capable of transmitting light with the efficiency of a crystal and the flexibility of a liquid.

How does our brain perceive emoticons?

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The emoticons are now so prevalent that the brain has learned to see these images as real persons, according to a research by Australian scientists, published in the journal Social Neuroscience. First appeared when Professor Scott Falman proposed the smiley and sad emoticon [ 🙂 and 🙁 respectively ] as representations of the human face on the board of Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh. Since then appear more and more often to the internet and sms.

Emoticons
Emoticons

Dr. Owen Tsertis and colleagues at the University of Flinders Adelaidas watched the electrical activity of the brain in 20 volunteers who were asked to look real face, smiling emoticon or meaningless sequences of characters. As shown by the analysis of the results, the patterns of brain activity was the same in the case of real persons and emoticon, which means they are perceived as real persons.

Emoticons
Emoticons

Also, it was found that the activity pattern changed and no longer correspond to a real person, when the image of the emoticon and was reversed (- :. What is striking is the identification of researchers that the brain’s response to the emoticon is a natural reaction but something that we learned from its use in recent years.

Emoticons
Emoticons

By Nicole P.

Nightmares cause sadness despite fear

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According to new research by the University of Montreal, violence, threats, death and health concerns are the most common reasons we see nightmares. The study showed that the nightmares cause more emotional damage compared to bad dreams. However, it was something that was not expected. Contrary to what we thought until now, the fear is not the dominant emotion that causes a nightmare. In fact, absent from most bad dreaming, and from 1/3 of nightmares. The emotions we experience after a nightmare is sadness, confusion, guilt or disgust.

Nightmares
Nightmares

Regarding the gender, the study showed that men see nightmares with natural disasters and wars, unlike women, whose nightmares are usually associated with interpersonal conflicts. The findings emerged after analyzing almost 10,000 dreams, of which 253 were nightmares and bad dreams just 431. Psychologists researchers, Genevieve Robert and Antonio Zadra, said: Death, concerns about our health and external threats are the most common issues of our nightmares, but it would be wrong to say that this characterizes all nightmares.

Nightmares
Nightmares

Sometimes, the sense of threat or an ominous atmosphere is enough to wake us up. There incident whereby someone woke up terrified, because he saw an owl sitting on a branch. They also underlined that people who often see nightmares, are afraid to sleep, and thus often suffer from insomnia.

Nightmares
Nightmares

By Nicole P.